Daive and Manushi Veena
There are many resemblances between the human body (God made Veena) and man made Veena. These secrets are revealed in a book by name, “SANDHYA VANDANEEYA TATVARTHA” and “VEDA PRAKASIKE” written and published by Mr. YEDA TOREY SUBRAMANYA SARMA in Kannada language in the year 1936.Many secrets of Veena were mentioned in this book. A few points are given below:
- Veena has 24 frets, 4 strings on the frets and 3 on the side.
- The top 1st string Sarani indicates – the RigVeda 2nd string Panchama indicates – YajurVeda 3rd string Mandara indicates – Sama Veda 4th string Anumandra indicates the AtharvaVeda.
- All these 4 strings bear the Suddha Satva guna.
- The 24 frets get their importance by the nada produced from them and not because of the metal used.
As we see in the universe the three states viz., creation, sustenance and merger (Srusti, Shiti and Laya) even in Nada we see the same three states.Likewise, the 24 frets representing 12 Sruthees in two octaves (24) indicate the 24 letters (Aksharas) of GAAYATHRI MANTHRA. “TAT SAVITUR VARENYAMBHARGO DEVASYA DHEEMAHIDHIYO YONAH PRACHODAYAT”
Veena has been compared to human body:
- The human back-bone (Spinal Chord) stands straight from the Mooladhara (the seat of the body) up to the head.In the top of the head exists the Brahma Randhra.
- Just like the 24 frets of the Veena, human back bone has 24 divisions. According to the anatomy, the back bone has 7 cervicles, 12 thorasic and 5 lumbar vertibraes.
- In Veena the distance between each fret is broad in the lower octaves and becomes less while proceeding towards the higher octaves.Similarly the back bone is thick at the Mooladhara and the distance between each ring becomes less while proceeding towards the Brahma randhra.
- The Mandara Sthaayi Swara starts from the seat point of the human back bone and as it proceeds towards the Brahma Randhram situated in the Sahasraram, the pitch or sruti increases. It is here, where the life of music is situated.
- The nada born out of the union of prana (life) and agni (fire) starts from the Mooladhaara at low sruti and reaches the Sahasrakamala crossing the Swaadhisthana, Manipoora, Anaahata, Visuddha, Aagna, the Shadchakras. In this course the sruti (pitch) increases.
- This shows the resemblance between the Daivi Veena and man made Veena. So it is definite that to attain Moksha nada yoga is a correct path, and for practising nada yoga Veena is an appropriate instrument.
Saarngadeva has pointed out, each part of Veena is an abode for a particular deity. “SARVA DEVA MAYEE TASMATH VEENEYAM SARVA MANGALAA PUNAATI VIPRAHATYADI PATAKAIH PATITAAN JANAAN” As all the deities reside in Veena it is Sarva Mangala, because all sins are driven away.
“INDIRA PATRIKAA BRAHMA TUMBURNAABHIHI SARASWATEE-
DORIKO VAASUKIR JEEVAH SUDHAA MSUH SAURIKA RAVIH”
The above Verse describes the deities and their places in Veena . G.N.Balasubramanyam in his book ‘Veena’ has said like this:
DANDI – SHAMBHUTANTRI – UMA-KUKUBHAM – KAMALAAPATI(POT-KUNDA)
PATRIKA – LAKSHMI-TUMBA – BRAHMA-NAABHI – SARASWATI-DORIKA – VASUKI-JEEVALA – MOON-FRETS – SUN
Hence Veena is considered to be Moksha dayaka liberating instrument. Many Gods have played many instruments but only Veena has been given such Godly sacred position.
According to Sadguru Sri Shivananda Murthy the veena nada becomes a part of our body if played for 120 hours. It means that the nadopaasana done internally (inside the mind or body) and that which is done externally by playing the instrument becomes one, and upasana shakti is generated.Here it is appropriate to remember the Kriti. ‘Meenakshi Me Mudam Dehi’ of Dikshitar. He attained Moksha (liberation) while playing this kriti on veena.
Nada is of two varieties, Ahata Nada and Anahata Nada. The Ahata Nada is one that is born out of the union of Prana (life) and agni (fire).The inner sound that travels from the Navel (Nabhi) to the throat is Anahata Nada. Hence, the teeth and the tongue have no role to play. This Anahatam is the Nadam which pervades the entire universe including inhaling and exhaling. The entire nature is nothing but Nadopasana. Thus the person gets immersed in the nadam, and cuts out the existence of the universe. Hence there is no diversion of mind and life. This is Anahatam. Sadguru Sri Shivanandamurthy has said that by manipulating, disciplining the shatchakras one can hear the Anahata nadam in the center of the body. This is attaining the first stage through Nadopasana.The second stage is the Brahmadi lokam and the 3rd the Brahmanubhooti. (Salvation-for attaining salvation Pranavopasana is Katha yogam. If examined, this katha yogam is also Nada Brahma Upasana. This Pranavopasana is in the Anahata Chakra (Centre of the chest). This Pranavam (OM) the most inner sound of inhaling and exhaling breath is nothing but the Parabrahmam, the Paramatma. It is this which exists in the Jivatma (soul) and in the Trimurty’s (the paramatma).Thus it is seen as Nada Brahmam. Based on this a human does Pranavopasana in Anahatam and attains salvation. This is the main point in Kathopanishat. When one becomes master of this, Nadam becomes the body. This is what Tyagaraja said in his kriti “NADA TANUMANISAM” and revealed the great secret.
1) “RAGA SUDHA RASA PANAMU CHESIRAJILLAVE ? MANASAYAGA YOGA TYAGA BHOGAPHALA MOSANGEYSADA SIVA MAYAMAGUNADOMKARA SWARAVIDULU JEEVAN MUKTULANUTYAGA RAJU TELIYU” (RAGA SUDHA RASA)
2) “NADA ROOPUDAWANI VININEY SRI NADHANINNU NAMMITINI” (YE PAPAMU CHESITIRA)
3) MOOLA DHARAJA NADA MERUGUTEYMUDAMAGU MOOKSHAMURAKOLAHALA SAPTASWARA GRUHAMULAGURUTEY MOOKSHAMURA? MANASA
The review and analasys of Tyagaraja kritis gives us the knowledge which we can get by studying Brahma-Suthras and Upanishads. To understand Thyagaraya’s Krithees, and playing them on Veena is nothing but yoga, great knowledge of yoga which is the pathway to liberation.Veena consists of all dieties and this itself is the yoga sadhana for attaining salvation. Thus it reveals shiva manovidham SARVAM SIVAMAYAM.